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      時間:2014-03-10 10:01 來源:未知 作者:博聯教育 點擊:

      1. 簡單句的五種形式:     (1)主語+謂語(不及物動詞);     (2)主語+謂語(及物動詞)+賓語;     (3)主語+謂語+賓語+補語;     (4)主語+謂語+間接賓語+直接賓語;     (5)主語+系動詞+表語。  兩類系動詞:①be動詞;②一些實義動詞用作系動詞:feel, taste, smell等;
      2. 并列句:一個句子當中包含兩個或更多互不相依存的主謂結構,中間用一些連接詞連接起來的句子。并列句不能只用逗號隔開,而要用連接詞連接。連接詞:(1)并列關系句型:連接詞有and, as well as, either…or…,neither…nor…,not only…but also… 1.Last year I met Kate and we became friends.2.Either my uncle can do it, or my aunt can do it.
      (2)轉折概念并列句型:轉折詞有but:It has no mouth, but it can talk.(3)對比關系的并列句型:He liked sports, while I would rather collect stamps.舉例:1.Cerling‘s team collected tap water samples from 600 cities and constructed a mop(最終結果) of the regional(地區的) differences.(簡單句)     2.Most hydrogen(氫) and oxygen(氧) atoms(原子) in water are stable, but traces(痕跡) of both elements are also present(呈現) as heavier isotopes(同位素). (并列句)
      句子六大成分:主謂賓、定狀表。      主語、賓語和表語:通常由代詞或者名詞構成,      定語:修飾名詞;      狀語:修飾形容詞或者動詞;      表語:接在系動詞后面;
      1人稱代詞:第一、二、三人稱,主格、賓格、所有格;I, you ,he, she, it,  me, you, him, her, it, my, your, his, her, its.       
      2 物主代詞①形容詞性物主代詞:my, your, his, her, our, their,后面加名詞;May I borrow your pen?②名詞性物主代詞:mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs,后面不能加名詞。Mine is missing。
      3反身代詞:通過反身代詞指代主語,使動作發出者把動作在形式上反射到發出者本人。強調人稱問題。1.I myself took Mary to the airport. 2.I cooked it myself.      
      4. 指示代詞:this, that, these, those   
      5. 不定代詞:some,someone,something,any,anyone,anything,no,no one,nothing,all,both,neither,either,each,every,everybody,everyone,everything.一些比較重要的不定代詞之間的區別:(1)all, each, every:① all和every可以指代三個或三個以上的人或物;all可以表示所有東西的總和,是一個不可分割的整體; each只能表示兩個或兩個以上的人,側重個體;② all和every側重整體,each側重個體;1.Every staff of the university contributed to the fund.2.Two girls came, and I gave an apple to each.   
      (2)everyone,every one:everyone等同于everybody,all people ;Everyone thinks they have the right to be here;every one既可以指人,也可以指物,強調一個個體,通常用every one of ;1.Every one of us has faults and shortcomings.2.Every one of the films we have shown this year has been a success.
      (3)no one,none:no one 只能指人,none既可以指人,也可以指物,none后面還可以接of;1.No one failed the examination.2.None of the students failed the examination. 
      6. it 的用法  
      ① it 用來指代時間、距離、溫度、天氣等:It's three years since I saw him.     
      ② it 用來前指或者后指:I've lost my book. Where is it?There is no doubt about it that he was a fine teacher.     
      ③ it 做形式主語:Is it possible to learn typewriting very quickly?     
      ④ it 做形式賓語,通常放在謂語動詞和賓語補足語(形容詞)之間,真正的賓語放在賓補之后,常見動詞有:feel, consider, find, believe, make, take, imagine, think, suppose, regard。1.She thinks it no use telling me.2.He has made it clear that he wouldn't agree to the plan.
      ⑤ it 用于強調句,構成句型It's…that/who…,如何區分強調句中的it和形式主語中的it?It's clear that they have won.如果It's和that去掉后,剩下的部分依然能構成完整的句子,就是強調句;否則,即為形式主語。
      1. 可數名詞:有單復數之分,若名詞為單數,通常前面要加冠詞a/an、the進行限定;若名詞為復數,可以加上the,或者直接用復數名詞,或者加上數詞來進行限定;名詞的復數形式可以直接加s/es,以y 結尾的,變y 為i ,再加es,還有一些特殊形式的;有些單數名詞的形式,是集合名詞,可以用作復數,如police,cattle,people,mankind等;1.Several hundreds police were on duty at the demonstration(示威游行) yesterday. 2.Cattle are allowed to graze(放牧) on the village common.(公有地)
      2. 不可數名詞:通常是物質名詞或者抽象名詞,其前可以不加任何東西,若有特指,可以加the.前面可以加上單位詞,常見單位詞:    ①a piece of +advice/bread/cloth/fortune/information/music/muse    ②a bit of、an item of(一則)、an article of(一件(衣服))
      3. 名詞在翻譯中遇到的問題:   
      (2)名詞表示特指時,可以加冠詞       ①不定冠詞:a/an,通常表示一,但是不強調數目;Germany is a European country.       ②定冠詞:表示特定或特指:Is this the book that you are looking for?定冠詞還可以使用于一些比較獨特的語言現象:如指代地球或宇宙這種獨一無二的事物。It's from that story we have the idea that mankind is responsible or has dominion over the animals and the earth.(從這個故事中,我們感到,人類是重要的,人類統領著,其他動物和整個地球。)
      the+名詞:表示全部或者整體。Do you know who invented the computer?;用于樂器或專有名詞前,如play the piano、the Thames
      注意:零冠詞:不可數名詞不特指時,前面不加任何冠詞:節日,時間, 季節,三餐,球類,學科,職位,頭銜前一般不加冠詞。What do you usually have for lunch?
      1.表示大約的詞匯:about,approximately,around,roughly,some,more or less, or so;. 1.About 200 people were killed in the crash. 2.The town is 5 Miles or so from here.
      (1).When they detect the beginnings of a wave of unfolding local order, they simulate it faster than real life and then bet on where they think the wave will approximately end當他們探測到正在展開的局部秩序的波動時,就會以比真實生活更快的速度進行模擬,然后把注下在他們認為這一波動將停留的最近似的端點。
      (2)approximately semicontinuous近似半連續的,Approximately firm大致堅穩,approximately equivalent近似等價,approximately equals約等于
      (3)roughly equivalent大約相當于roughly explain籠統解釋roughly speaking大約說來roughly summarily概略地count roughly約計,It would cover roughly 80% of the economy畢竟減排將涉及到大約80%的經濟。One is that the world economy returns roughly to its pre-crisis rate of growth, without regaining the ground lost第一種可能性是,世界經濟大體回到危機前的增長速度,但還未奪回失去的陣地。But the income gaps of rich countries have narrowed, so living standards in the West today are roughly the same between town and country但是富裕國家的收入差距已然有所縮小,因此在今日的西方國家,城市和農村生活水平差距并不明顯。That is roughly equivalent to China's consumption last year這差不多相當于中國去年一年的消耗量。This path roughly tracks the transition of a country from an agricultural to an industrial base.這條道路大體遵循著一個國家從農業基地過渡到工業基地的變化軌跡。The price of orange juice has risen by a quarter over the past year, eggs by a fifth and milk by roughly 5%在過去這一年中,橘子汁價格上漲四分之一,雞蛋價格上漲五分之一,牛奶價格也差不多有5%的增幅。For each out-of-date power plant it shut down in a two-year cleanup campaign, it added the capacity of roughly two more對于在為期兩年的清理過程中關閉的每家過時的發電廠,它又新產生了大約兩倍于此的發電能力。
      House prices look overvalued on The Economist's price-to-rents ratio, which stands roughly 20% above its long-run average (see chart). 從經濟學人的租售比表格來看,租售比比其長期平均數據高出20%,房價被高估了(見表格)。Roughly a century ago scholars rejected this explanation when archaeologists digging at the site could find no chasm and detect no gases大約在一世紀之前,考古學家在此挖掘,卻沒有找到裂溝,也偵測不到氣體,因此學者便否定了這個解釋。Since Monday, when the market fell to its lowest point in 12 years, indexes have soared roughly 10 percent, their best run since November自周一來,雖然股市跌至12年來的最低點,但指數卻上漲了10%左右,這是自十一月來的最好表現,Roughly half of its articles—generally financial news and insiderish business reports—sit behind a pay wall, although they are free if accessed via Google News該刊文章大約有一半——基本上是財經新聞及內部商業報道——需付費閱讀,即使這些文章通過谷歌新聞網可以免費讀到As a matter of fact, this saying is roughly accurate, at least in the spring and fall, but the reason it works is more complicated than we might initially think事實上,這種說法至少在春天和秋天里是比較正確的,但是其中的道理也許比我們當初想的要復雜的多He reckons that America will account for just 27% of global consumption this year against emerging markets' 34%, roughly the reverse of their shares eight years ago他認為美國今年僅會在全球消費中占到27%的比重,而新興市場會占34%,這與八年前的情形剛好相反Poorer parents, meanwhile, maybe tempted to borrow more than they ever expect to repay; the default rate on government-blacked loans is roughly 22% and bound to rise同時,較為貧困的家長,可能誘惑去借些大多自己根本沒打算還的錢;在政府的利率上,違約的大約是22%并且一定會上升Meanwhile, students have blocked roughly 40 universities nationwide to express their discontent about government plans to grant higher education institutes greater autonomy同時,成千上萬的學生封鎖了全國約40所大學,表達了他們對政府給高校更多自主權的不滿。The idea is practical since it means amending banks' debt structures, not reinventing them, although banks would need roughly to double the amount of this debt that they hold盡管銀行為此不得將持有的債務總額翻一番,但是這樣做意味著修改而不是重新創造銀行的債務結構,所以這種想法是符合實際的Since roughly half their expenses are tied to borrowing costs, which they cannot control, that translates into an 8-10% fall in non-interest operating costs, of which salaries are a big part由于這些銀行約一半的費用都和不受他們控制的借貸成本有關,這些借貸成本轉變為員工薪水占很大比例的非利息經營成本后下降了8-10%,In effect, that would require them to improve fuel economy roughly twice as fast as the federal government's bill, since the only straightforward way to reduce emissions is to increase efficiency事實上,這就要求汽車廠商們以兩倍于聯邦政府法案規定的速度來改善其燃料的節約方式,因為要想減少排放,唯一直接的方法就是提高效能

      2. 表示多于的詞匯:above,more than, over3. 表示少于,不到的詞匯:almost,below,less than, under. It's 2:57, and it's almost 3 o'clock4. 一些可以直接表示數字的單詞: dozen、score、decade、hundred、thousand、million.這些詞前面出現基數詞,表示確切的數時,不能加復數;若不能表明確切數字,只是說大約有多少的時候,以上這些詞不可以加確切的基數詞,但是可以將其變為復數,后加of;There are millions of kinds of matter in the world.
      (1)dozens of 幾十;許多by the dozen 成打地;按打計算half a dozen adj. 半打,六個a dozen eggs 一打雞蛋daily dozen 每日健身操;例行公事Perhaps a dozen companies around the world can make something similar也許世界上好多公司都能造得出類似的東西Carried a dozen workers on the payroll工資名單上包括十二個工人The Internet is a bunch of interconnected networks, so your data probably moves along a dozen different networks between here and there因特網是一組相互連接的網絡,所以你的數據可能會沿著許多不同的網絡在傳送Only a dozen other countries, including China and Russia, have similar restrictions, and there is no evidence that these bans halt the spread of AIDS
      僅有十幾個其他國家,包括中國和俄羅斯,也有類似的限制,但也沒有證據表明這些限制會阻止艾滋病的蔓延Chinese and South African companies signed more than a dozen agreements yesterday involving investments in railways, power transmission, construction, mining, insurance, telecoms and nuclear power中國和南非兩國企業昨日簽署了十多項協議,涉及對鐵路、輸電、建筑、采礦、保險、電信以及核電等行業的投資
      (2)Does he often score for our school football team? 他經常為我們學校的足球隊得分嗎?Too high of a score? 分數打得太高了?When did the London team score the second goal? 倫敦隊是什么時候攻進第二球的?Two candidates and a score of party workers were killed by rival party thugs兩名候選人和十來位黨務工作者被敵對黨派暴徒殺害And failure, for whatever reason, is common: a score of budget airlines have either collapsed or lost their independence in the past five years而且不管出自什么原因,失敗總是常有的:在過去的五年內,已有二十家廉價航空公司倒閉或者被兼并When students receive less than a perfect test score she would point out what they had mastered and declare firmly they could learn what they had missed當學生的考試成績不理想時,她就會指出他們掌握了哪些,并堅定地斷言他們能學全遺漏的知識But it could just as well be that those who score highly on self-esteem scales by claiming to be wonderful people all around also boast of being physically attractive這種推論看來雖然合理,但同樣有可能的是,宣稱自己很不錯,而在自尊量表上給高分的人,可能也會自吹自擂是外貌吸引人的人But by including it in his budget plans, he sends a more tangible signal of his determination to take on global warming than he could with a score of uplifting speeches但把這個方案寫入計劃,至少可以說明奧巴馬給了一個更明確的信號——他決心治理全球變暖問題,而不僅僅停留在一堆振奮人心的演說詞上The analysis is then broken into steps that progressively take into account larger and larger grammatical chunks, updating the sentiment score of each entity as it goes分析過程于是被分成幾個步驟,由單個詞匯逐漸累加成越來越大的語法塊,隨著分析的進行不斷更新每個模塊的情感分值The WEF's ranking is one of the more significant measurements of countries' economic potential since it aggregates an extensive number of different indicators to arrive at its overall score世界經濟論壇的排行榜,是衡量各國經濟潛力的較重要指標之一,因為它在計算總分時綜合了大量不同的指標Buying a diamond ring soon after buying petrol results in an even higher risk score: thieves often test a card's validity with a small purchase before buying something much bigger在購買汽油之后立刻購買鉆石將導致風險分值增高,因為竊賊在購買大件物品之前,通常用小筆買賣來測試信用卡是否可用People with dyscalculia might also have a poor sense of direction. They might have difficulty keeping score during games, and limited ability to plan moves during games like chess計算障礙者有可能方向感也很差。他們或許難于記清游戲中的分數,并且對于諸如圍棋一類的游戲,其行棋能力有限But they would need 60 votes to overcome a filibuster, and an election year gives the Republicans an extra incentive to use the hearings to score political points不過,民主黨將需要60票才能擊敗阻擾,而且選舉年對共和黨是一個額外的激勵——利用聽證撈取政治本錢Just as a master can recall all the moves in a game he has played, so can an accomplished musician often reconstruct the score to a sonata heard just once就像大師記得住比賽中下過的每步棋一樣,訓練有素的音樂家也經?梢杂涀≈宦犨^一次的奏鳴曲樂譜
      1. 定語:用來修飾名詞,通常是形容詞;若是單個形容詞,一般放在修飾名詞前;若為詞組,一般放在修飾名詞之后;形容詞詞組的兩種情況:   (1)成對的形容詞:She has many pencils, blue and red.   (2)形容詞短語:I think he is a man suitable for the job.形容詞還可以做表語,放在be動詞之后;英語中有一些詞語作表語和作定語時,含義會有所不同:  
      (1)certain:作定語時,表示特定的: A certain(某一) Mr. Wang just came here to look for you;作表語時,表示當然的,一定,相當于be sure;No matter what the reason, one thing is for certain(不管是出于什么原因,有一件事是肯定的。)
      (2)complete:作定語時,表示完全的;作表語時,表示完成的或完美的;A complete scan of the source code by the compiler or assembler由編譯程序或匯編程序對源程序代碼的一次完整的掃描Experts say students with dyscalculia need extra time to complete their work專家說擁有計算障礙的學生需要額外的時間完成作業Only time will tell if cryonics is true science or a complete waste of money唯有時間才能確定人體冷凍是真正的科學還是純粹浪費錢Students complete the survey before starting the programme and after graduating學員在課程開始前和畢業后兩次完成問卷調查Will the parent company really allow the fund managers complete investment freedom母公司真的會允許基金管理者實現完全的投資自由嗎? It can supply complete testing evidence in the way of printing records, simply, quickly, conveniently and reliably能夠簡單快捷、方便可靠地以打印記錄的方式提供完整性測試證據It just gives you feedback to help you evaluate your fitness to complete tasks that require lots of effort and concentration它只會給你回饋的結果來評估你完成那些需要許多努力和注意力任務的合適程度To save all of the files needed to display this page, including graphics, frames, and style sheets, click Web Page, complete要保存顯示該網頁時所需的全部文件,包括圖像、框架和樣式表,請單擊“網頁,全部” We all know people who have never learned to communicate their feelings, and, in all probability, they are not going to do a complete turnabout now我們都認識一些從來沒有學會與他人交流感受的人,而且很可能他們到現在都不準備作出徹底的轉變Even if they are lucky enough to have a complete fossil, they may be unable to say much about how the animal behaved if it looks unlike anything they have seen before即使他們十分幸運的弄到一個完整的化石,如果它和以前他們所有見過的東西都不像,他們也沒法對這個動物的行為了解更多Don't push for an interview on the spot, but rather explain that you want to let them know of your interest, drop off your resume, and complete an application while you're there if possible這個時候不要急著想得到面試,而是解釋為你只是想讓他們知道你對他們招聘的職位有興趣,放下你的簡歷,然后有可能的話填完一份申請表就離開吧This theory acknowledges that people do not require complete privacy該理論認為人們不需要完全的隱私In this life there is no complete justice, nowhere is there full justice在這個世界上沒有完全的正義,沒有哪里是完美的正義Complete cooperation is vital to success徹底的合作是成功的重要條件There is no revenge so complete as forgiveness沒有比寬恕更徹底的復仇方式了
      (3)ill:作定語時,表示壞的;作表語時,表示有病的;Even now, however, it took a severe run of ill luck to decide him to appeal to her然而,即使是現在,也是因為運氣太壞,一直都討不到錢,他才決定向她求助的It is either making her ill or making her skive, neither of which are good無論她因此患病,還是因此受到折磨,這兩種情況都不太好   
      (4)late: 作定語時,表示已故的;作表語時,表示晚的、遲到的;They planned to put up a statue of the late President他們計劃給已故的總統豎一尊雕像Tell me about his late illness告訴我他最近的病況It's never too late to learn永遠沒有太遲的事,只有你不想做的事The latest revival in a popularized form is that of the New Age movement in the late sixties最近的影響較廣的復興是六十年代后期的新時代運動Only to know that regretting myself when it was too late. It is no paint in the world can come near to this我們總是容易忽略身邊最近的人,頻向遠方去追求,殊不知最愛的人往往就近在眼前,從未離開過我們   
      (5)ready:作定語時,表示現成的;作表語時,表示準備好的、愿意做……;Do you like ready-made clothing or tailor-made clothing? 你喜歡現成的衣服還是定做的衣服? This account provides you with a ready source of income這個戶頭為你提供了一個現成的收入來源Get paperwork ready in advance提前準備好相關文件Be ready to explain your actions準備好為你的行為作出解釋   
      (6)present:作定語時,表示目前的,相當于current;作表語時,表示出席,參加;This person is your present age這個人是你現在的年齡What present can I give you for singing to me? 我能給你什么樣的禮物來酬謝你為我歌唱嗎? At present our essential task is raised us the efficiency目前我們主要的任務是提高我們的效率Hang on! In the USA, when someone gives you a present, you must open it immediately等等!在美國,當別人送給你禮物的時候,你一定要馬上就打開它Who controls the past controls the future; who controls the present controls the past掌握過去帶人就能掌握未來,控制現在帶人就能控制過去Each student has to understand that going to school, he gets a wonderful opportunity to live better in the future and also in the present每個學生必須明白來學校上課,他們就獲得了一個難得的機會使他們將來甚至現在的生活過得更好As we prepare to attend, or host, gatherings of family and friends to greet the new year, fresh flowers are the perfect present to give to others and to ourselves當我們準備參加或主持家庭聚會時,或和朋友們迎接新年的到來時,鮮花對于他人還是我們自己都是一種超級棒的禮物
      注意:the+形容詞:表示一類人;the old, the poor, the blind, the rich, the young, the wounded
      2. 狀語:通常由副詞構成,副詞可以修飾動詞,形容詞,乃至整個句子;副詞通常是褒義的,有部分是有否定含義的,常見否定含義副詞有seldom,hardly,rarely,scarcely;其它副詞通常是表示肯定的概念;1.The promised cuts in public spending have scarcely begun to bite削減公共開支的承諾還沒有開始發揮效力。2. Rarely does the narrator comment on or explain a character's actions or thoughts or motives. There's only the barest(裸露的) minimum of dialogue. 作者極少評價或解釋一個人物的行為,或思想或動機,文章中只有不能再直白的對話。
      3. 形容詞和副詞的比較級:
      (1)一些沒有比較級的形容詞和副詞:      ①單詞本身的含義是表示比……年長、比……優秀、比……優等時,沒有比較級概念;如supreme(最高的;至高的;最重要的),inferior(次品, 下等的),junior(下級的),senior(高級的),prior(優先的),后面搭配的介詞一般是to,而不用than.
      1.Sovereign is to have supreme command over life and death, war and peace, what is to be taught and heard.
      2. The quote goes on: "As a race, the African is inferior to the white man. 他說道,"從人種這方面說,黑人比白人低劣
      3.Junior Achievement is an organization that teaches young people about finance and business初級的成果是一個幫助年輕人關于財政和生意的組織。
      4. He had now become the fourth most senior member in the Senate。他在當時成為了參議院內第四位最資深的議員。5. The downside to such a policy is that it reinforces the structure of the economy that prevailed prior to the recession而這樣的政策也有負面發展的可能性,那就是它進一步強化了經濟衰退之前的經濟結構。
      ②有些單詞本身的含義即是最,獨一無二,沒有比較級概念;如absolute,entire,excellent,favorite,final.1The absolute fake is so obvious that it is still invisible to us.. 這種完全的仿造是如此明顯,以至于我們仍然察覺不到。2. He developed an entire vocabulary, a rhetoric of righteous disobedience, of resistance, of protest and revolution.他創造出了一整套詞匯,一套用來表述,正義的不服從,反抗,示威,以及革命的詞匯。
      (2)同級比較和異級比較:      ①同級比較:as…as…/…times  as…:1.More than ten times as many studied business or engineering. 學商學和工程學的留學生人數是這一人數的十倍之多。2.But other factors contribute as well但是其他因素也起作用。3. Why should we have happiness as our highest end, as our chief concern, as that which determines the motion of our life? 為什么把快樂作為最終目標,作為主要擔心,為什么由它來決定生命活動?4. You can talk about it as much as you like, but as long as you're going to go home and still drive your Hummer and have sixteen hot showers a day, we're still going to have high carbon emissions.你可以在減排問題上一直高談闊論,但當你回家時,你仍然會開著你的悍馬,每天洗十六次熱水澡,我們依然在大量排碳
      ②異級比較:(倍數或修飾詞,表示多或少)+比較級+than.常見的修飾比較級的詞有:much、still,even,by far,a bit,a little, a good deal或者倍數;1.The photography of Mars taken by satellite are much clearer than those taken from earth.2.And we'll talk a little bit more about him: not today, but in the second lecture and in section. 我們會多對他進行討論:,不是今天,是這個部分的第二次課。3. America will remain the biggest economy by far美國仍將會是全球最大的經濟體。4. But notice, even if there is incredible constraints on grammars, still--we could still produce an infinite number of sentences.但是請注意,即使語法有著難以置信的不足,我們卻依然可以創造出無限數量的句子 5. This unusual offset arises because a good deal of energy is consumed to extract and process fossil fuels, and more is wasted in burning them and controlling their emissions這個不增反減的現象主要是因為有許多能量是用于開采及處理化石燃料,而且燃燒和控制廢氣排放所浪費的能量更多。7. It is not enough to avoid being clinically obese, or even just a bit overweight. 僅僅避免臨床的肥胖癥是不夠的,甚至是一點點地超重也不行。
      ③比較級特殊用法詞匯:more…than…:He is more clever than honest; the+比較級:越來越……:The harder you work, the more you will learn.

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